Cervical dysplasia is a condition in which abnormal changes take place in the healthy cells present on a woman’s cervix. Lower part of the uterus that leads to the vagina is called cervix which dilates and allows the fetus to pass during childbirth. The disease is commonly seen in women between the ages of 25 and 35.
HPV Human Papilloma Virus is the common sexually transmitted virus that causes cervical dysplasia. There are hundreds of strains of this virus out of which some of the low risk ones could cause warts in the genital area. The high risk strain causes changes in cells leading to cancer or cervical dysplasia.
Women taking immunosuppressant drugs, having illness that cause suppression of the immune system, women smoking cigarettes, having sex before18 years of age, giving birth before 16 years of age and having multi sexual partners are at greater risk of getting cervical dysplasia. Condoms must be used by highly sexually active women to reduce this disease risk. However the virus could settle around the genital skin if the condom is not properly worn.
What are the symptoms of cervical dysplasia?
Symptoms of the cervical dysplasia include abnormal bleeding occasionally and changes in cells that are not visible to the naked eye.
A Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion which is a damage of cellular tissue is indicated in the Pap test. A low grade SIL could go away on its own, but a follow up Pap test is advised by the doctor, after many months to monitor changes in the cells.
A colposcopy may be conducted to get close view of the cervix in case of high grade changes in cells. The biopsy of a small cervical tissue specimen is sent for further testing which could show as mild, moderate or severe dysplasia.
A normal Pap test is done to identify the condition. If prompt treatment is given, cervical dysplasia gets cured usually preventing it from progressing into the deadly cancer disease. Depending upon severity of the disease, different kinds of treatment including laser therapy, cryosurgery involving abnormal cell freezing, cone biopsy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure to remove affected tissue, is done. Every 3-6 months Pap smear test may be done. Practicing abstinence is the best way to prevent cervical dysplasia. If the person is involved in sexual activity then to lower risk of the disease, taking a doctors advise is very helpful.